What is Oil?
Anything that separates two surfaces that move on top of each other is called oil. They can be in the form of liquid, semi-liquid, solid, gas.
Oils are lubricants, usually liquid or semi-liquid. Most oils form a “film” between two surfaces. While this film adheres to both surfaces, it flows steadily between the two surfaces.
Today’s oils have a complex and advanced technological structure. In general, it is a mixture of different substances such as base oil, natural additives and synthetic additives.
The development and construction of machinery and its parts is a parallel event with the production and development of lubricants. Therefore, it is very important and necessary. A lubricant developed for where it is used will always present the least amount of problems. Every movement in machine parts causes wear. Because there is no movement without wear. Choosing and using the lubricant that will minimize this wear will reduce the cost and provide the best efficiency.
The viscosity ratio of a good knitting oil is very important. Viscosity refers to the rate at which a liquid flows, or its resistance to flow. Oils have different viscosities. Some need to flow fast. This is called low viscosity. It needs to reach areas requiring lubrication as quickly as possible and form a thick film to provide maximum protection. This is called high viscosity. High temperatures thin the oil. This causes the viscosity to drop. Therefore, it creates a thinner film layer that does not provide the required. For example, oil that flows slowly at 45 degrees Celsius will flow faster at 100 degrees Celsius.
Wear inhibitors form a film layer on metal surfaces, minimizing the homogeneous friction of the oil in the environment; high pressure resistors also increase the resistance of this film layer to significant velocity increases and impacts.
The use of anti-wear additives ensures that the system has full resistance to friction. The additives should be adjusted at the appropriate viscosity and should ensure that this viscosity is maintained in the machines that reach high temperatures.
If there are no corrosion-resistant additives in the environment, there will be abrasions that may occur due to chemical corrosion. Anti-rust additives will prevent any part of the system from rusting, that is, damage to the metal by any contact between the metal surface and the air.
Oxidation means that an oil loses its properties. The resistance of the oil, which reacts with air, deteriorates, the oil loses its properties, and acid and sludge form in the environment. This means that systems that are not resistant to oxidation damage the machines.
Antifoams prevent the formation of foam in machines operating at high speeds and therefore prevent the reduction of lubricating ability.
The fact that needle oils can have a washable feature means that they can be mixed with water in any way. Additives that provide the ability of oil to mix with water are emulsifiers. It reduces the surface resistance of the oil and allows it to mix with water. The use of such a water-miscible oil in knitting machines producing cotton blended fabrics is important for fabric manufacturers.
Antimicrobial additives should be used in the lubrication process to prevent damage to the personnel during skin contact. These additives also increase the storage time of the oil and prevent microbial proliferation. For this reason, the main thing in the selection of needle oil is the use of the right additives.
Features Expected from Needle and Platinum Oils
Long and high lubrication
Absence of viscosity difference at different temperatures
Keeping the needle channels constantly clean
Minimizing vibration and noise in the machine
Increasing the lifetime of needles and sinkers
Reducing the heat generated by friction in the machine
Being resistant to rust
Contains anti-rust additives
Does not damage machine paint and plastic parts
Provides less wear on machine parts
Having the ability to spread and hold on metal parts
Ability to be used in all lubrication systems
Today, the needles complete their movements in a very short time in the face of the increasing number of turns of knitting machines. For this reason, not choosing the right oil causes increased friction and wear, needle and sinker breakage or deterioration, and high temperatures in the machine. For this reason, it has become mandatory for the selected knitting oils to have high quality.
The lubrication technique in knitting machines was not considered a major problem until 20-30 years ago. Machine speeds were not as fast as today’s machines. Lubrication processes were carried out with crude oil oils. Old generation needle oils were meeting the needs of knitting machines more than enough. Clothmakers had no issues with oil streaks and stains either. However, with the emergence of new machine systems in the 70s, needle and sinker oils were also developed rapidly. Improvements in the production of knitting machines for a continuous and higher productivity and smoother working ability have provided a huge increase.
This process will continue. This situation means the following in terms of machine technique:
High working speed
More systems count
High production increase
In machine knitted parts, friction processes have become a very complex structure. The friction parts move continuously in the mixed friction zone. It creates horizontal and vertical movements that regularly cut the lubricating strip. A typical example of this is the needle feet that are carried forward by passing the knitting round-trip paths crosswise in the zig-zag direction. The high-speed rotating parts of the machines are manufactured with very precise tolerances.